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In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its precise meaning varies.
It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 metres, including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF) (30–300 k Hz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 k Hz) bands.
The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency.
Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna.
They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. There are government broadcast stations in the range 40–80 k Hz that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks.
They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 k Hz. For example: Radio controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers.
Amid purges and trumped up charges in the 1930s, the paranoid Stalin deported virtually the entire Korean population - some 172,000 people - 'to prevent the penetration of Japanese espionage' in the Soviet Far East.
Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 k Hz.
Long-wave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1.
Katya maternal grandfather Oktavian was born en route to bleak Karaganda in Kazhakstan 1936, but in fact her family thrived in their internal exile, and he rose to become a respected Soviet designer.
Her 76 year old grandmother Antonina (above) still lives in Kazakhstan Yet despite being a descendant of victims of Stalinist repression, unlike Kristina Rihanoff, who Katya replaces, the new girl on Strictly did not have to fight her way up from poverty when the Soviet Union broke up triggering social upheaval and economic chaos.